PECO Country Profile: Ukraine

February 2nd, 2017 § 0 comments § permalink

Ukraine has a population of approximately 43 million and 35000 registered advocates (as of January 2017). The Ukrainian National Bar Association (UNBA) has been established by law in 2012 as an independent self-governed organization. UNBA has joined the CCBE as an observer member in December 2016.


Key information about the profession:

  • Initial training of lawyers: Complete higher legal education (master’s degree in law), command of official language and two years of practice in the field of law are required to take the bar exam. It is then necessary to undertake a 6-month traineeship program. Upon completion of traineeship, the certificate of right to practice law is issued and the information is entered in the Unified Register of Advocates of Ukraine.Persons who have worked as an advocate’s assistant for at least one year are exempt from undertaking the 6-month traineeship program.
  • Continuous training is mandatory. It is organized by the Ukrainian National Bar Association and regional bar councils, as well as other organizations. All of the lecturers undergo certification by the UNBA Expert Committee to ensure high professional level of the speakers. Failure to comply with the mandatory continuous training is a disciplinary offense.
  •  Specialization is not mandatory. Advocates are free to choose the field in which to practice.
  •  Discipline: Regional Qualification and Disciplinary Commissions of the Bar (QDCB) are in charge of reviewing disciplinary actions against advocates. They are composed of advocates, elected at regional conferences for a 5-year term. The decisions of QDCBs may be appealed to the Higher Qualification and Disciplinary Commission of the Bar, which is composed of 30 advocates, 27 elected by respective regional conferences and 3, the President and two Vice-Presidents – elected by the Congress of Advocates of Ukraine.
  • Legal Aid: the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine is in charge of the legal aid system in Ukraine. It is financed by the government. Ukrainian National Bar Association has criticized the system on both national and international level and even prepared a special report on the subject. Primary concerns of the UNBA in this regard is the process of admission of advocates by the Ministry of Justice to provide legal aid (additional exams, even though everyone has already passed the bar exam); non-transparent financing; the fact that directors of regional legal aid centers are often not advocates themselves, and advocates have to show the case files to them in order to get paid, thus violating professional secrecy etc.

Current concerns of the Bar and main challenges in the coming years:

Current concerns:

  • One of the gravest concerns is the continuous violation of advocates’ professional rights and guarantees by government institutions and law enforcement agencies. Since 2015 CCBE has intervened on a number of occasions with letters addressed to the President of Ukraine, the Prime Minister, the Prosecutor General and other notable officials. The Prosecutor General and his deputy even used inappropriate language when addressing advocates during a hearing of a parliamentary committee and on national TV respectively.
  • On 20 December 2016, the parliament of Ukraine approved amendments to the Tax Code of Ukraine, that in turn, amended Law of Ukraine ‘On the Bar and Practice of Law’, thus limiting the existing discretion of advocates’ self-government to set the sum and procedure of payment of yearly membership fees, as well as traineeship fees. Such changes were introduced without any prior consultation with Ukrainian National Bar Association whatsoever. The CCBE has addressed the President of Ukraine with this regard on 23 December 2016.
  • There is a plan for 2017 to introduce amendments to the Law of Ukraine “On the Bar and Practice of Law” by the Judicial Reform Council under the auspices of the President of Ukraine. The UNBA, being the regulator of the profession, has not even been invited to delegate members in such an important institution. The planned amendments have not been discussed by the government with the regional bars and UNBA and thus are strongly opposed on both the regional and national levels.

Main challenges:

  • Amendments to the Constitution of Ukraine establishing mandatory court representation by advocates have been approved by the parliament of Ukraine in 2016. The amendments come into effect in stages:
    • 1 January 2017 – Supreme Court of Ukraine and cassation courts;
    • 1 January 2018 – Appellate courts;
    • 1 January 2019 – all courts in Ukraine.

These changes are very welcome. However, we expect a significant rise in number of registered advocates, since before this reform one was only required to become an advocate if he wished to practice criminal law. Therefore, as of right now there are a lot of unregulated legal practitioners (the numbers are in the thousands) which will become advocates in the nearest future.

PECO Country Profile: Estonia

December 13th, 2016 § 0 comments § permalink

The Republic of Estonia has a population of approximately 1.3 million and 984 lawyers registered with the Estonian Bar Association (as of 24.10.2016).  The Estonian Bar Association was set up in 1919 and has been a full member of the CCBE since 2004.


Hannes Vallikivi, Chairman of the Estonian Bar Association

Key information about the profession

  • University education: A person must have a Master’s degree in Law in order to take an exam to become a sworn advocate’s clerk or a sworn advocate.
  • Initial training of lawyers: A candidate can register with the Bar after completing a Master’s degree in Law followed by an exam for a sworn advocate’s clerkship. After 3 years work as a sworn advocate’s clerk, one can take an exam in order to obtain the status of a sworn advocate. If a person, immediately prior to admission to the Bar Association, has worked for at least two consecutive years in an office or position which requires at least a nationally recognised Master’s degree in Law or a foreign qualification equal thereto, the Board of the Bar Association may allow the person to take the sworn advocate’s examination if he or she has practiced as a clerk of a sworn advocate for at least one consecutive year. This exam is not compulsory – a person may work as a sworn advocate’s clerk for an indefinite period of time.
  • Continuous training: Continuous training is mandatory. During a five-year period (five years is a trial period for all advocates), an advocate has to obtain 80 points of continuous training. One point equals one academic hour and 10 points per year is a minimum. Continuous training is provided by the Estonian Bar Association but it is also allowed to take training courses offered by other private organisations (in this case it is the Bar that decides if the training obtained from a private organisation can be taken into account for the calculation of training points).
  • Specialisation: Specialisation is not mandatory. After passing the Bar exam, an advocate is free to choose the field of law in which he/she will start his/her practice.
  • Discipline: The Court of Honour (Estonian equivalent of the Court of Ethics) of the Estonian Bar Association is in charge of disciplinary proceedings. The Court of Ethics has seven members and four substitute members. Five members and three substitute members must be sworn advocates with at least ten years of professional experience as sworn advocates. Two members, professional judges, are elected by the general assembly of judges. One of the members is an expert in law appointed by the Department of Law of the University of Tartu. An appeal against the decisions of the Court of Ethics may be filed with the Administrative Court. (See more on disciplinary practice in Estonia and other Member States here)
  • Legal Aid: The state legal aid is financed from the state budget. The state legal aid is organised by the Bar. At the request of the court, the Prosecutor’s Office or the investigative body, the Bar Association will promptly appoint an advocate to provide state legal aid. Appointing an advocate is done via state legal aid electronic system, which is administered by the Bar. Orders for the state legal aid become visible in the electronic system for the advocates who have marked themselves as providers of state legal aid (it is not compulsory for advocates to offer state legal aid) and an advocate who wishes to take the case accepts it electronically.

Current concerns of the Bar: The main concern is how to maintain an effective state legal aid system with limited financial means provided by the state.

Logo of the Estonian Bar Association

Logo of the Estonian Bar Association



PECO Country Profile: Lithuania

October 5th, 2016 § 0 comments § permalink

Prof. Dr. Ignas Vėgėlė, President of the Bar Council of the Lithuanian Bar Association

President of the Lithuanian Bar Association, Prof. Dr. Ignas Vėgėlė

Lithuania has a population of 3 million, and has 2130 lawyers (as of February 2016). The Lithuanian Bar Association was set up in 1918, and has been a full member of CCBE since 2004.

Key information about the profession

Initial training of lawyers: Master’s degree in law, or a lawyer’s professional qualification degree (one-cycle university education in law).

The period of an apprenticeship as an advocate’s assistant is two years. Upon completion of the apprenticeship, a candidate can take the bar exam. Alternatively, they can continue their apprenticeship as an advocate’s assistant, until he/she takes a decision to take the bar exam.

Continuous training: Continuous training is mandatory and is organised by the Lithuanian Bar Association. There are also possibilities of continuous training outside the framework established by the Lithuanian Bar Association. Failure to undergo continuous training may lead to a disciplinary action against an advocate.

Specialisation: Advocates have a right to choose a field of law in which they would provide legal services.

Discipline: the Disciplinary Committee conducts an initial investigation of disciplinary violations. The conclusions drawn by the Committee are submitted to the Bar Council. On the basis of its conclusions, the Bar Council decides if the disciplinary proceedings shall be initiated. Disciplinary actions against advocates are heard by the Court of Honour of Advocates which consists of five members accomplished with at least ten years of experience as an advocate.

State legal aid: state-guaranteed legal aid is financed from the state budget. Legal aid is available on all legal issues and is organised by state-guaranteed legal aid services.

Current concerns of the Bar

The national legal system: latest changes of the Law on the Bar

One amendment was adopted and came into the force on the 17th of January 2016 – the Bar Council has been assigned a new function – the recognition of advocate’s assistants practice under the Law on the Recognition of Regulated Professional Qualifications (article 60).

Laws / decisions related to the Bar


The new Law on Conciliatory Mediation in Civil Disputes was drafted and discussed by the Government. Due to the efforts of the Lithuanian Bar Association, the Government has adopted the draft on Law on Conciliatory Mediation in Civil Disputes with the provision prescribing that advocates (who practice as an advocate for period longer than 5 years) have no obligation to pass a mediator exam. This draft legislation will be discussed in the committees of the Parliament.

Qualification Exam

The draft law on the Common Qualification Exam for judges, prosecutors, notaries, and advocates is currently under consideration in the Committee of the Legal Affairs of the Parliament. The Lithuanian Bar Association is of the opinion that a special exam for advocates should be organised by the Lithuanian Bar.

Protection of clients’ rights

According to the article 51 of the Law on the Bar, the Lithuanian Bar Association is a pre-trial authority in the disputes arising between clients and advocates on standard unfair contractual terms of the contract for legal services. On the 29th of December 2015, the Bar Council adopted the “Work Regulations of the Commission of the standard unfair contractual terms of the contract for legal services”, and nominated the members of this Commission.

In addition, there are positive developments in the areas of state-guaranteed legal aid, representation by advocates in courts and social security for lawyers.

For a more detailed information, please read the full PECO country profile of Lithuania.

PECO Profile: Albania

July 14th, 2016 § 0 comments § permalink

logo_National Chamber of Advocacy Of Albania

Albania has a population of 2 800 000 and 1800 active lawyers (data of 2015), with a total number of 8200 lawyers. The Albanian National Bar Association joined the CCBE as an observer member in 2008. Since 2018 official name – Albanian Chamber of Advocacy.

Key information about the profession:

Initial training of lawyers: One must obtain a university law degree. Mandatory initial training consists of a one-year internship and the completion of a training program organised by the National School of Lawyers (NSL). Upon completion of the initial training, a candidate should pass a qualification examination for the practice of the legal profession and obtain a result of more than 50 percent.

Continuous training: Is mandatory. A detailed regulation is under preparation. Continuous training activities are organised by the National Chamber of Advocacy in the framework of international programmes, such as JusT, Council of Europe, USAID, etc. Failure to attend continuous training activities shall constitute grounds for revocation of the license to exercise the profession of advocate.

Specialisation: There is no specialisation.

Discipline: The law on the Profession of Advocates of 2012 introduced the position of a Complaints Commissioner, who can be addressed in case of infringements of the law committed by a lawyer. After their decision on the case, the complaint may be presented before the Disciplinary Committee composed of 6 lawyers, 1 representative of MoJ, 1 representative of civil society or academia, 1 representative appointed by a decision of HCJ, which decides on the specific case. A suit can be filed at the administrative court if one wants to contest the decision of the Disciplinary Committee.

Legal Aid: In Albania, a Law on Legal Aid was adopted in December 2008 and entered into force in April 2009. However, due to the drawbacks of the current legal aid system one of which is its limited budget, free legal aid continues to be provided mainly by non-governmental organisations with donor funding.

Current concerns of the Bar:

PECO Profile: Czech Republic

June 7th, 2016 § 0 comments § permalink

The Czech Republic has a population of approximately 10.5 million and 12.000 lawyers (in 2015). The Czech Bar Association was set up in 1990 and has been a full member of CCBE since 2004, after being an observer member since 1992.

JUDr. Martin Vychopeň – President of the Bar

Key information about the profession:

  • Initial training of lawyers: Master degree in Law which lasts five years. Then, a traineeship of three years during which the trainee needs to attend mandatory courses organised by the Czech Bar Association. The Bar exam is taken at the end of the traineeship. The practice of a judge, a prosecutor, a prosecuting attorney, a state arbitrator, a state notary, a notary, a trainee judge, a prosecution trainee, an arbitration trainee, a trainee prosecuting attorney, a notary candidate and a notary trainee, a licensed executor, a licensed executor candidate and trainee, a Constitutional Court Justice, an assistant to a Constitutional, Supreme or Supreme Administrative Court Justice, an assistant to an Ombudsman, an assistant to a judge, an assistant to a prosecuting attorney, and activity of an employee of the Ministry of Justice who has obtained a university degree in law could all be considered a legal traineeship. The Bar may recognize other traineeships to be the traineeship of a legal trainee. 
  • Continuous training: There is no obligatory continuous training system for lawyers. However, the Czech Bar organises seminars and conferences for lawyers on regular basis.
  • Specialisation: There is no specific specialisation regime. The lawyer can choose a field of ‘specialisation’. Lawyers can provide legal services in general practice.
  • Discipline: There are three bodies engaged in disciplinary proceedings: the Disciplinary Commission of the Czech Bar Association (83 members – all are Members of the Czech Bar Association), the Appellate Disciplinary Panel (11 members) and the Supervisory Council (54 members). For more details, see here.
  • Legal Aid: The Czech Bar organises 15-minute free of charge consultations for general public. These consultations can be obtained in nine cities around the country and are possible in all fields of law. For detailed information about Legal Aid in the Czech Republic please click here.

Current concerns of the Bar and main challenges in the coming years:

The Czech Bar is facing a potential threat from online and other forms of alternative legal services.

Recently, they have also been dealing with attempts to disrupt the principles of attorney-client privilege, for example in criminal cases – search of a lawyer’s home or office.

PECO Profile: the Slovak Republic

January 7th, 2016 § 0 comments § permalink

The Slovak Republic has a population of approximately 5.5 million and 6000 lawyers (in 2015). The Slovak Bar Association was set up in 1990 and has been a full member of CCBE since 2005, after being an observer member since 1990 (until 1992 as part of Czechoslovakia, later on representing Slovak legal profession).

President of the Bar, JUDr. Ľubomír Hrežďovič

Key information about the profession:

  • Initial training of lawyers: Both Bachelor (3 years) and Master (2 years) in legal studies are required. 5 year traineeship period with compulsory attendance on seminars is organised four times a year plus seminars on legal ethics and office management. The bar exam at the end of the traineeship period consists of a written test and an oral exam.
  • Continuous training: Continuous training is not mandatory but offered on a voluntary basis to all lawyers by the Bar three times a year in a form of a 2 day conference on various legal aspects, further training activities depend on the actual need and offer (workshops, seminars, conferences).
  • Specialisation: This is not part of the university studies nor is it covered by the Act on Legal Profession. Any “specialisation” in relation to lawyer´s occupation is only in practical sense and stems from the experience acquired in the course of lawyer´s work. In 2012 a list of professional subject fields was introduced on the Slovak Bar Association official website and in the registry as additional search criterion. The list serves clients in order to find lawyers according to their experience.
  • Discipline: The disciplinary proceeding is conducted by a three member disciplinary panel appointed by the Chairman of the Slovak Bar Association Disciplinary Committee from among its members. All members are lawyers. The Disciplinary Committee of Appeal decides about the appeals in disciplinary proceedings.
  • Legal Aid: National Centre for Legal Aid established by the Ministry of Justice is responsible for the provision of legal aid in civil, family, labour law and asylum cases (in cross-border disputes commercial law is included) by way of its employees as well as lawyers who expressed their will to be on the list of legal aid lawyers. Lawyers´ fees are reimbursed according to their statement of accounts by the Centre which acts as a state budgetary organisation. In criminal law matters lawyers are assigned ex offo to persons in material need and expenses are reimbursed by courts.

Current concerns of the Bar and main challenges in the coming years:

  • Trainee lawyers – Slovak Bar Association took various steps in order to improve the quality of the traineeship period. The traineeship was prolonged to five years.
  • Ethics and office management – Law firms as well as Slovak Bar Association are beginning to focus more on the issues related to firm management itself, its ethics and accompanying practical problems that might have partially led to the some negative developments in legal practice. Slovak Bar Association responded to this development by the introduction of lectures and seminars on ethics in legal profession that take place throughout the whole traineeship period.
  • Illicit trading – the Slovak Bar Association is concerned with a widespread form of unauthorised trading in the course of which legal services are provided in an unauthorised way (eg. legal representation under the guise of civil representation, an extension of officially claimed services to legal services). The Slovak Bar Association organises meetings with the representatives of courts and prosecutors in order to discuss how to tackle this problem in the future. It suggests courts not allow the presence of these self-proclaimed legal representatives during the court proceedings and it urges that this criminal offence be properly prosecuted as crime of unauthorised trading.

PECO Profile: Turkey

December 16th, 2015 § 0 comments § permalink

Turkey has a population of approximately 78 million and 87 000 lawyers (in 2015). The Union of Turkish Bar Associations was set up in 1969 and has been an observer/associate member of the CCBE since 1995.


Prof Dr Metin FEYZİOĞLU, Esq. President of the Union of Turkish Bar Associations

Key information about the profession:

  • Initial training of lawyers: Generally, the duration of undergraduate education in law schools in Turkey except the ones which has obligatory preparation class is 4 years. The overall duration of traineeship period is one year: the first six months are spent in courts under the authority of judges and prosecutors, the second six months are spent in a law office under the supervision of a lawyer who at least has five years of experience. There is no bar exam in Turkey.
  • Continuous training: There is no compulsory continuous or permanent training for lawyers in Turkey.
  • Specialisation: There is no regulation with regard to specialisation in Turkey.
  • Discipline: All local bars in Turkey are self-regulatory disciplinary bodies. There is a “Disciplinary Board” in each bar association. The Union of Turkish Bar Associations also has a Disciplinary Board which is the authority for complaints. After the final decision, it is possible to apply to the Administrative Court.
  • Legal Aid: According to Turkish law, real persons, public benefit associations and foundations are all entitled to legal aid. Legal aid provides to its beneficiary: i) temporary exemption from all the judicial and enforcement proceedings expenses, ii) exemption from assurance regarding judicial and enforcement proceedings expenses, iii) other necessary expenses arising from judicial and enforcement proceedings to be paid in advance by State, iv) providing an attorney, whose fee to be paid later. A request for legal aid will be made to the legal aid office or its representatives at the enforcement court where the proceedings take place. If the request for legal aid is rejected, the requestor may apply to the president of the bar association verbally or in writing. The decision of the president of the bar association will be final. In the criminal procedures, all proceeding costs shall be covered by the state.

Current concerns of the Bar and main challenges in the coming years:

  • The number of law faculties is increasing, however there are not enough lecturers which leads to a decrease in the quality of education.
  • Laws passed by the Parliament which do not lead to certainty and predictability of the law.
  • Turkey is the only country in Europe which does not have an examination for becoming a lawyer therefore this situation makes elimination impossible, as well as making the need to uphold the dignity of the profession and control of the quality of services difficult.
  • Pressures against lawyers and the profession because of the general political conditions of the country.
  • Uncontrolled number of lawyers in Turkey which lowers the quality of profession.
  • Due to internet technology, the tendency to provide web-based legal services which lowers the quality of services and causes uncontrolled quality of services. It also prevents in-person contact and causes problems with regard to the tax related matters and unfair competition.
  • As the interdisciplinary practices (accountants and lawyers) intensify day by day, this situation causes a decrease of control over the legal profession’s monopoly on the practice of law.

PECO Profile: Russia

December 7th, 2015 § 0 comments § permalink

Russia has a population of approximately 143.5 million and 75 000 lawyers – called ‘advocates’ (in 2015).  The Russian Federal Chamber of Lawyers was set up in 2003 and joined the CCBE in 2013.

The President of the Russian Federal Chamber of Lawyers, Yury Pilipenko

The President of the Russian Federal Chamber of Lawyers, Yury Pilipenko

Key information about the profession:

  • Initial training of lawyers: Law degree; Bar exam – at the end of a 1-year traineeship in a law firm (or for those who have 2 years of work experience in the legal domain).
  • Continuous training: Lawyers with less than 1 year experience: 30 hours of training; lawyers with more than 1 year experience – 20 hours annually or at least 100 hours in 5 years. Training is provided by the Chamber and private bodies with yearly control. Sanctions for non-performance – disbarment or suspending the advocate’s status.
  • Specialisation: no mandatory specialisation.
  • Discipline: the Qualification commissions at the regional bar chambers are in charge of disciplinary proceedings.
  • Legal Aid: is financed and organized by the State and the Bar and available for criminal and civil cases.

Current concerns of the Bar and main challenges in the coming years:

  • Merger of the legal profession
  • Achievement of high-quality measures applied at all stages of the criminal proceedings, strengthening professional guarantees for protection of lawyers’ rights
  • Maintaining high professional and ethical standards for advocates. Consistent and effective application of disciplinary system against advocates who violate the Advocates’ Code of Professional Ethics
  • Anti-corruption measures against so-called “pocket lawyers”, especially in outlying regions
  • Reform of the legal services market
  • Main challenge: reform of the Russian legal services market under the“Justice” National Programme. There are a large number of so-called “unregulated” legal professionals, non-advocates, that exist outside of the legal framework. This lack of regulation can have a negative impact on:
    • professional ethical standards,
    • quality of legal assistance,
    • protection of trial rights,
    • access to justice,
    • implementation of the Rule of law principle.

PECO Profile: Macedonian Bar Association

November 26th, 2015 § 0 comments § permalink

“The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia” has a population of 2.000.000 and 2300 lawyers (in 2015). The Macedonian Bar Association was set up in 1945 and joined the CCBE in 2001.

Mac bar

President of the Macedonian Bar, Nikola Dodevski

Key information about the profession:

  • Initial training of lawyers: Master in Law degree (5 years); traineeship 1 year if it is with law firm, court or prosecutor, 2 years if it is with companies. After the training period, the trainee must pass the judicial exam conducted by the Ministry of Justice. It is the same exam for lawyers, judges and prosecutors.
  • Continuous training: the trainings are organised by the Bar and are accessible on the Bar’s website. They are run in cooperation with the judicial academy and international organisations.
  • Specialisation: this depends on the individual needs of the practicing lawyers.
  • Discipline: the following organs are in charge of the disciplinary proceedings in the Bar: the disciplinary prosecutor, disciplinary court, and the appeal council. All these organs are elected by the Annual Assembly of the Macedonian Bar Association with a 4 year mandate. The lawyer can challenge the final decision of the Appeal Council by appealing to the Administrative court of the country.
  • Legal Aid: the law for free legal aid was implemented in July 2010. It is organised through the Ministry of Justice. Free legal aid is available in criminal and civil proceedings. It is granted in all judicial and administrative procedures, provided they concern matters of interest for the legal aid beneficiary, such as the rights in the area of ​​social, health, pension and disability insurance, labor relations, protection of children, victims of domestic violence, protection of victims of criminal offenses, the protection of victims of trafficking, recognizing the right of asylum and legal property issues.

Current concerns of the Bar and main challenges in the coming years:

  • Non equality of the parties in criminal proceedings.
  • Extension of the scope of power of the notary public and the impact this has on the lawyers’ work.
  • Representation in civil procedures by relatives of the parties and non-licenced representatives of the legal entities.
  • Protection of the independence of the profession from interference by state organs and the need for equality of parties in all procedures.
  • Protection of the scope of the work.

PECO Profile: Moldova

November 10th, 2015 § 0 comments § permalink

Moldova has a population of 3 555 000 and 1807 lawyers (in 2015). The Bar Association was set up in 1946 and joined the CCBE in 2008. It has twinning agreements with the National Association of Romanian Bars since 2012 and with the State Bar of New Mexico since 2014.

President of the Moldovan Bar, Emanoil Plosnita

President of the Moldovan Bar, Emanoil Plosnita


Key information about the profession:

  • Initial training of lawyers: law degree (4 years); traineeship (18 months); there is an exam as a precondition for beginning the traineeship, and after the traineeship, the candidates are required to pass the final bar exam.
  • Continuous training: advocates must undergo 40 hours of training per year. Training is provided by private bodies and donor organisations. All lawyers are subject to yearly control, and non-fulfilment of the training can lead to disciplinary sanctions.
  • Specialisation: advocates are free to practice in any legal field. The Law on the Legal Profession recognizes the right of advocates to specialize and to practice law according to the specialization of their choice. However, there is no particular specialisation system.
  • Discipline: the Committee on Ethics and Discipline of the Bar is in charge of disciplinary proceedings.
  • Legal Aid: it is financed through the state budget and donors contributions. Both criminal and civil law cases are covered by legal aid system. There is a special body created according to the law (National Legal Aid Council). The Bar delegates 2 members to sit at the board.

Current concerns of the Bar and main challenges in the coming years:

  • Current concerns: the Bar is worried about certain legal initiatives oriented to allow non-advocates to provide legal assistance in court proceedings. The CCBE shared the Bar’s concern (see CCBE letter of April 2015).
  • Main challenges: Improving the quality for professional qualification of advocates; Strengthening the community of advocates; Creating better conditions for advocate’s activity; Improving the management efficiency/transparency of the Bar’s governing bodies; Bettering compliance by advocates with ethics rules.